The Book and Beyond

Broj 1 - Godina 2 - 12/2011

Uvodnik

About a year and a half ago, or perhaps it was more, no one seems to remember the exact day anymore, when we decided to start [sic] – a Journal of Literature, Culture and Literary Translation, in our minds we had a small journal that would nevertheless stimulate debates and challenge authors to participate with their contributions in hope of offering a somewhat different view on various topics and themes that we think about in our professional life and work. We hoped for some hundred or perhaps two hundred pages of articles, essays and translations; we counted on contributions from our friends and colleagues from Croatia and secretly dreamed that someone from abroad will find our journal interesting enough to join in. And today, when we are releasing our third issue that counts well over five hundred pages of articles, essays and translations, with more than twenty authors from all over the world, we are safe to say that we more than exceeded our initial expectations and even our wildest hopes. ..

Pročitaj cijeli članak →
Izdvojeno

World literature’s natural home is comparative literature, a discipline born from and shaped by, as Vilashini Cooppan elegantly puts it, “scholarly engagements with the categories of migration, exile, diaspora, and globalization” (15). However, world literature has frequently been framed as a problem for the discipline, in large part because of its dependence on the ever-vexing and still mistrusted specter of translation. In light of the long-standing anxiety toward both world literature and translation, I propose here that comparatists do ourselves a terrible disservice if we do not urgently take up the questions raised by this disciplinary tension. Translation – in all of its attendant struggles with ethics, aesthetics, appropriation, authority – is not the problem, but, rather, should be understood as a key critical lens for comparative and world literature.In order to establish academia’s frustration with this subject, one need look no further than the “Three Reports to the America Comparative Literature Association on ‘Professional Standards’” (dating from 1965, 1975, and 1993), which return repeatedly to the problem of reading translated literature, circling around it with intense ambivalence. The moral of their story seems to be that translated texts are integral to comparative literature at the same time that they threaten its existence by undermining disciplinary exclusivity in foreign language expertise and by shining a sort of spotlight on all that literature which comparative literature may sometimes “condone” (as one of the reports puts it) but to which it does not often actively attend. Even Goethe had Western European languages and literatures firmly in mind when he coined the term, “Weltliteratur.” Translations can’t help but point up the limits of the “four [likely European] languages” proposed as minimal standards for graduate students by the Green and Bernheimer reports, and on the strength of which a comparative literature department would presumably distinguish itself from departments of English, media studies, and so on. The discipline, one comes to understand, must hold translation at arm’s length, or, preferably, secreted behind its back, embarrassed that it can’t just give the mess up....

Pročitaj cijeli članak →

“America is now wholly given over to a d – d mob of scribbling women, and I should have no chance of success while the public taste is occupied by their trash…” (Hawthorne 304). However Nathaniel Hawthorne chose to voice his frustration with the American female writer, she did play a significant social role in nineteenth-century American cultural history. Formally removed from the political discourse of their generation, women activists turned to other means for disseminating opinions and disapproval. The rising genre of the novel was one of the most effective and visible forms available to American women. Viewed as an historical artifact, the novel was steeped in social convention and cultural ideology. Therefore, when women turned to it to voice opposition to Andrew Jackson’s Indian Removal Act, they did so by embracing the traditionally-accepted methodology of the novel, but altering it through subversive language and plots to suit their critical needs. The goal of this paper is to look at the social implications that surrounded Catharine Maria Sedgwick’s Hope Leslie or Early Times in the Massachusetts and Lydia Maria Child’s Hobomok, A Tale of Early Times by an American. By setting both of these works amidst the cultural atmosphere that gave rise to Jackson’s Indian Removal, I plan to look at the social and historic impact of Child and Sedgwick’s works as these two authors wrote out in opposition to the treatment and representation of the American Indian. Within the process, I intend to note several of the significant arguments regarding women’s role in social and political policy and the ability of women writers to reach the general public through their reading audiences. ...

Pročitaj cijeli članak →

In the past four decades the U.S. cultural scene has witnessed a groundbreaking emergence of a number of Native American writers who have transformed the perception of minority literature, challenging Western audience to reconsider popular stereotypes and received assumptions of indigenous history, identity and culture. Today many of those writers hold prominent positions on popular bestseller and university reading lists, and interest in reading and studying their work is a mainstream trend. Committed to cultural and historical revisionism, they have also expanded the notion of a literary text, and the book as its traditional medium, turning it into a political weapon, a zone of conceptual contact, contestation and dialogue. With his third novel Fools Crow (1986) renowned Blackfeet author James Welch pointed his bow and pen in that direction as well.Set in the 1870s, the period of Indian wars, Fools Crow is a story about the tragedy of Native Americans caused by the coming of the Europeans. It captures the lives of Lone Eaters band of the Pikuni people, one of the bands belonging to the Blackfeet tribe, living on the border between American and Canadian Rocky Mountains. Told from Native American perspective, describing the time of dramatic transformation after encountering the Europeans, the plot of the novel centers around the life of the main character White Man’s Dog, later renamed Fools Crow because of his honorable performance in one of the battles. At the beginning he is just a young teenage boy, eager to finally set up his place as a successful warrior in his tribe. In spite of his initial insecurity and misfortune, he is growing into a successful warrior, hunter, leader, husband, and healer. Even though it seemingly follows Western tradition of the “identity narrative”, Fools Crow is not just a story about the experience and growth of an individual character illustrative of Western narrativity. This novel in many ways affirms Owens’s statement that “contemporary Native American authors are requiring that the readers cross over the conceptual horizon into an Indian world” (20). Right at the beginning, it invites a number of conceptual turns necessary for its understanding and interpretation. Blackfeet expressions and literal translations of words and concepts from the Pikuni culture blend with English sentences, making the novel a linguistic and conceptual amalgam. With no glossary provided, the text forces the reader to acquire the words like Napikwans (white settlers), blackhorn (buffalo), prairie runner (antelope), skunk ear (wolverine), ears-far-apart (owl), elk dog (horse), and accede to an anthropomorphic worldview in which swift silver people (fish) and the deities – Night Red Light (moon), Sun Chief (sun), Seven Persons (a constellation), Earth Mother and Wind Maker – are an integral part of human and earthly events. Throughout the novel, Pikuni words and cosmology continue to suppress Western ones, proving Onion’s thesis that, by inserting Pikuni words, Welch not only translates and mediates between cultures, but also creates a contact zone, invoking and affirming Blackfeet worldview (cf. Onion). ...

Pročitaj cijeli članak →

Rad će postaviti pitanje nudi li danas Mreža alat za “osnaživanje čitatelja”, kako je najavljivala hipertekstualna teorija devedesetih. Interaktivnost kao “prirodan” oblik pismenosti postala je ideologem razumijevanja elektroničke pismenosti. No je li danas uistinu riječ o demokratizaciji čitanja-pisanja putem odabira smjera, “kretanja” virtualnim prostorom teksta? Rad će naglasiti razliku između Web 2.0 žanrova i koncepcije hiperteksta te razliku tekstualne i vizualne pismenosti. Ono što ćemo ovdje nazvati “topografskom proizvodnošću” bitno se razlikuje od “distributivne proizvodnosti” kakvu danas susrećemo na Mreži. Mreža nije orijentirana isključivo na proizvodnju virtualnog dérivea, trodimenzionalnog prostora kretanja, već je riječ prvenstveno o komunikacijskom kanalu. Umjesto topografije, za Mrežu će biti ključno povezivanje bilo kojih dviju točaka i uspostavljanje kanala “distribucije”. Temelj distributivne strukture jesu mrežni protokoli, prvenstveno TCP/IP protokol koji omogućava peer-to-peer, izravnu komunikaciju dvaju računala. Kanali neovisne distribucije postojali su i ranije, prvenstveno u polju alternativnih ili opozicijskih kultura u obliku DIY praksi, no domet njihove distributivne mreže bio je slab. Mreža je kanal do sada nezamislive fleksibilne distribucije, nehijerarhijski kanal koji (digitalnoj) proizvodnji pripaja dodatnu vrijednost. Politička, ekonomska i kulturalna pitanja redefinirana su arhitekturom te protokolima koji tu arhitekturu definiraju. Protokoli su pravila koja su podređena socijalnom konsenzusu. U tom smislu politička teorija novih medija mora napustiti mit “osnaživanja čitatelja” i krenuti prema složenom tipu materijalne analize ili analize arhitekture te socijalnih pravila koja tu arhitekturu definiraju. Proizvodno-distribucijski subjekti i tekstovi naseljavaju sve mrežne komunikacijske kanale. Bloganje, Twitteranje, Facebookanje, Flickeranje, YouTubanje naših života dio je procesa lifestreama. Dio je ontologije elektroničkog identiteta ultimativni zahtjev za menadžeriranjem života koji se provodi translacijom identitetskih varijabli na Mrežu. ...

Pročitaj cijeli članak →